A very typical case of severe cholestasis due to anabolic steroid use. Because the steroids were being used without medical supervision, the dose and actual duration of use of each preparation was unclear, but cholestasis usually arises within 4 to 12 weeks of starting a C-17 alkylated androgenic steroid. The jaundice can be severe and prolonged and accompanied by severe pruritus and marked weight loss. The serum enzymes are typically minimally elevated except for a short period immediately after stopping therapy. The pattern of enzyme elevations can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Liver biopsy shows a “bland” cholestasis with minimal inflammation and hepatocellular necrosis. Ma Huang has also been implicated in cases of drug induced liver injury, but is associated with an acute hepatocellular pattern of injury.
Anabolic steroids are a type of substances whose chemical composition is similar to hormones such as testosterone. These substances are used by many sports persons and body builders to improve their fitness, and to increase their stamina and strength. In many sports, use of such substances is therefore illegal, because they are deemed to give undue advantage to their users. Apart from their illegality in many sports, there still are many negative side effects of anabolic steroids. Here we will discuss the 4 main disadvantages of using anabolic steroids.
Letrozole has been used for ovarian stimulation by fertility doctors since 2001 because it has fewer side-effects than clomiphene ( Clomid ) and less chance of multiple gestation. A study of 150 babies following treatment with letrozole or letrozole and gonadotropins presented at the American Society of Reproductive Medicine 2005 Conference found no difference in overall abnormalities but did find a significantly higher rate of locomotor and cardiac abnormalities among the group having taken letrozole compared to natural conception.  A larger, follow-up study with 911 babies compared those born following treatment with letrozole to those born following treatment with clomiphene.  That study also found no significant difference in the rate of overall abnormalities, but found that congenital cardiac anomalies was significantly higher in the clomiphene group compared to the letrozole group. Despite this, India banned the usage of letrozole in 2011, citing potential risks to infants.  In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee said that the drug controller office colluded with letrozole's makers to approve the drug for infertility in India and also stated that letrozole's use for infertility was illegal worldwide;  however, such off-label uses are legal in many countries such as the US and UK.